The United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government.
The CCL is divided into ten categories: (0) Nuclear Materials, Facilities and Equipment, and Miscellaneous; (1) Materials, Chemicals, Microorganisms, and Toxins; (2) Materials Processing; (3) Electronics Design, Development and Production; (4) Computers; (5) Telecommunications and Information Security; (6) Sensors and Lasers; (7) Navigation and Avionics; (8) Marine; (9) Propulsion Systems, Space Vehicles, and Related Equipment.
The CCL is divided into 10 categories. Each category is subdivided into five groups, designated by the letters A through E: (A) Equipment, assemblies, and components; (B) Test, inspection and production equipment; (C) Materials; (D) Software; and (E) Technology.
A list of countries designated controlled for national security purposes found in Country Group D:1, including: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, the People's Republic of China, Georgia, Iraq, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Macau, Moldova, Mongolia, North Korea, Russia, Tajikstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. All of the controlled countries except Cuba are listed in Country Group D:1 of the EAR. Cuba is listed in Country Group E:2.
The release of technology or software source code to a “foreign national” (defined below) in the United States. Such a release is deemed to be an export to the country of which the foreign national is a citizen.
Any item or technical data designated on the USML, 22 C.F.R. Pt. 121.1, as well as technical data recorded and stored in any physical form, models, mockups or other items that reveal “technical data” directly relating to items on the USML.
The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad, in the design, development, engineering, repair, maintenance, modification, operation, demilitarization, destruction, processing or use of defense articles or the furnishing to foreign persons of any technical data controlled by the ITAR.
A list of specific persons that have been denied export privileges, in whole or in part. The full text of each order denying export privileges is published in the Federal Register. The Denied Persons List can be viewed at http://www.bis.doc.gov/dpl/default.shtm
Development is related to all stages prior to serial production, such as: design, design research, design analyses, design concepts, assembly and testing of prototypes, pilot production schemes, design data, process of transforming design data into a product, configuration design, integration design, and layouts.
Items that have both commercial and military or proliferation applications. While this term is used informally to describe items that are subject to the EAR, purely commercial items are also subject to the EAR (see §734.2(a) of the EAR).
Release of information by instruction in catalog courses and associated teaching laboratories of academic institutions is not subject to EAR. ITAR: Information concerning general scientific, mathematical, or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, colleges and universities is not controlled by ITAR.
An embargo is the prohibition of commerce and trade with a certain country, in order to isolate it and to put its government into a difficult internal situation, given that the effects of the embargo are often able to make its economy suffer from the initiative.