Export Controls Glossary

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)

The United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government.

Commerce Control List (CCL)

A list of items under the export control jurisdiction of the Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce. The CCL is found in Supplement 1 to part 774 of the EAR.

Commerce Control List (CCL) Category

The CCL is divided into ten categories: (0) Nuclear Materials, Facilities and Equipment, and Miscellaneous; (1) Materials, Chemicals, Microorganisms, and Toxins; (2) Materials Processing; (3) Electronics Design, Development and Production; (4) Computers; (5) Telecommunications and Information Security; (6) Sensors and Lasers; (7) Navigation and Avionics; (8) Marine; (9) Propulsion Systems, Space Vehicles, and Related Equipment.

Commerce Control List (CCL) Group

The CCL is divided into 10 categories. Each category is subdivided into five groups, designated by the letters A through E: (A) Equipment, assemblies, and components; (B) Test, inspection and production equipment; (C) Materials; (D) Software; and (E) Technology.

Controlled country

A list of countries designated controlled for national security purposes found in Country Group D:1, including: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Cambodia, Cuba, the People's Republic of China, Georgia, Iraq, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Macau, Moldova, Mongolia, North Korea, Russia, Tajikstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam. All of the controlled countries except Cuba are listed in Country Group D:1 of the EAR. Cuba is listed in Country Group E:2.

Deemed exports

The release of technology or software source code to a “foreign national” (defined below) in the United States. Such a release is deemed to be an export to the country of which the foreign national is a citizen.

Defense Article

Any item or technical data designated on the USML, 22 C.F.R. Pt. 121.1, as well as technical data recorded and stored in any physical form, models, mockups or other items that reveal “technical data” directly relating to items on the USML.

Defense Service

The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad, in the design, development, engineering, repair, maintenance, modification, operation, demilitarization, destruction, processing or use of defense articles or the furnishing to foreign persons of any technical data controlled by the ITAR.


Development is related to all stages prior to serial production, such as: design, design research, design analyses, design concepts, assembly and testing of prototypes, pilot production schemes, design data, process of transforming design data into a product, configuration design, integration design, and layouts.