Export Controls Glossary


Items that have both commercial and military or proliferation applications. While this term is used informally to describe items that are subject to the EAR, purely commercial items are also subject to the EAR (see §734.2(a) of the EAR).

Educational Information Exclusion EAR

Release of information by instruction in catalog courses and associated teaching laboratories of academic institutions is not subject to EAR.
 Information concerning general scientific, mathematical, or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, colleges and universities is not controlled by ITAR.


An embargo is the prohibition of commerce and trade with a certain country, in order to isolate it and to put its government into a difficult internal situation, given that the effects of the embargo are often able to make its economy suffer from the initiative.

Empowered Official

a U.S. person who: (1) is directly employed by the applicant or a subsidiary in a position having authority for policy or management within the applicant organization; and (2) Is legally empowered in writing by the applicant to sign license applications or other requests for approval on behalf of the applicant; and (3) Understands the provisions and requirements of the various export control statutes and regulations, and the criminal liability, civil liability and administrative penalties for violating the Arms Export Control Act and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations; and...

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A detailed description of how the ultimate consignee intends to use the commodities being exported.


The person abroad that receives and ultimately uses the exported or reexported items. The end-user is not a forwarding agent or intermediary, but may be the purchaser or ultimate consignee.


The actual shipment or transmission of items subject to export controls (i.e., the EAR or the ITAR) out of the United States, or the “release” of technology or software (including source code) to a foreign national in, or outside of, the United States. (A release of technology or source code to a foreign national in the United States is considered a “deemed export.”)

Export Administration Regulations

The Export Administration Regulations (EAR), Title 15, sections 730-774 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), means the regulations promulgated and implemented by the Department of Commerce that regulate the export of goods and related technology identified on the Commodity Control List (CCL).

Export control

The set of laws, policies, and regulations that govern the export of sensitive items for a country or company.