I am doing basic research at HSPH in collaboration with a foreign lab, do export controls apply?

Sharing only the results of fundamental research with a foreign lab would not require a license. However, most often what you are sharing is more than the fundamental research. We often share fundamental research with a foreign collaborator, so that the collaborator can take the research a step further. That effort may also involve conversations designed to supplement your initial findings that were conducted under the fundamental research exclusion. The new research, even if based on fundamental research, is not eligible for the fundamental research exclusion, and any supplementary discussions or material may not be subject to the exclusion. Indeed, applying the fundamental research results to a new matter, particularly in the military or space field, could well trigger a license requirement.